07/21/97 Seminar - Startup and Shutdown
These are my expanded notes from the 07/21/97 seminar.
- Booting HPUX machines
When starting up an HP, there are several layers that the boot process goes
through before allowing you to log in to your machine (either at the console or
- Autoboot stage
If your machine is set to autoboot, it will not give you the
BOOT> prompt. Instead, it will try to find a device that it
can go to the next stage with (the ISL). To stop the autoboot, hit the
ESC key. If your HP does not present you with the option
of aborting the autoboot, then your machine is in Secure Mode. To
unset secure mode, you need to unplug all bootable devices (this include the
network, all harddrives, tapes, and CDROMs). Once you get the BOOT prompt,
type secure off. You can then power off your machine and plug everything
- BOOT prompt
Depending on your hardware, you may be given a menu from which you can select
the BOOT prompt (or "Administration mode"). Do this if needed. From here,
there are many things you can select. Most of the options change depending
on what kind of hardware you have. Several commands are the same:
- help - this gives you a list of commands that are available.
- search - this will present you with a list of devices and "paths"
that you can boot an ISL from.
- boot [path/device] (isl) - this will attempt to boot into the
ISL stage from a given device or path. Two paths are pre-set: the primary
and secondary paths. These paths are used for booting during the
Autoboot stage. To boot your primary path device (emulating what
the autoboot would normally do) type in "boot pri". After
doing a search there may be other paths (P0, P1, etc) that
you could boot off of. The device name will be listed along with the path.
If your CDROM is P1, then "boot p1" would boot off your
CDROM device. The last option to boot is the "isl" option.
With this in the command line, the ISL will stop to interact with you.
"boot pri isl" will boot your primary device, stopping to
use the ISL.
- secure (on/off) - this shows what state the Secure mode
is in. If you give it either an on or off option, it will
set the secure mode. With secure mode on, you cannot break out of an
autoboot if there are bootable devices.
- path [pri/sec] [device] - set your two default boot paths. To
set your default primary boot path to your CDROM you would type something
like "path pri scsi.2.0". Use search to find out
the device name you should use for the path command.
- ISL prompt
Once you reach the ISL prompt, you are in the LIF block of your boot device.
All this means is that you have actually managed to boot off the device you
chose. From here, you need to select a utility to boot. Several commands
are built in, and the rest can be seen by asking for a list of the LIF
area with ls:
- help - this gives you a list of built in utilities available.
Sometimes this list shows things that you can't run.
- ls - this will show you what utilities exist in the LIF area.
Usually, you will find "hpux" listed. This is your default OS and Kernel.
It is possible to have multiple kernels in the same LIF area. (The Support
CD does this.) Other utilities could exist as well. For example,
if you have installed the OnlineDiag bundle, you will find the ODE
utility for running limited diagnostics on your machine.
- utility [options] - runs a utility with specified options.
For example, to boot into single user mode, you send an init state of "s" to
the HPUX kernel with "hpux -is".
- Run Levels
When an HPUX machine boots up, it has a default run level (usually 4) that is in the
/etc/inittab file. To boot up, init will run all the scripts in each
of the /sbin/rc?.d directories that start with an "S", where the "?" are each
of the runlevels from 0 through the "current" level. For example, to boot to runlevel
2, from the ISL prompt you type "hpux -i2". When init runs, it will run all the scripts
in /sbin/rc0.d, then /sbin/rc1.d, and finally those in /sbin/rc2.d.
- Shutting Down HPUX machines
There are several methods available to shutdown or change the run level of an HPUX machine:
- Switching Run Levels
To change run levels, just type "/sbin/init runlevel". init will
take care of shutting down the scripts started in all the runlevels above the one
you requested. "/sbin/shutdown -y 0" will also bring the machine down to
- Shutting Down for real
You can use the "/sbin/shutdown" command to either halt or reboot an HPUX
- Halt - /sbin/shutdown -h grace time
- Reboot - /sbin/shutdown -r grace time
Where grace time is in seconds. I usuaully use "0". :)
- The Power Switch
On the newer 700 series machines and the C-class machines, the power switch actually
runs "shutdown -h 0", so in a pinch, you can just turn the machine OFF.
- More Information directly from HP:
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