codeblog code is freedom — patching my itch

5/19/2010

openoffice presenter console

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu — kees @ 5:38 pm

During the Lucid development sprint, Pete showed me the glory that is the OpenOffice presenter console. Since then I’ve switched laptops, and I figured I need to document for myself, and maybe others, how to have your OOo presentation on one screen (e.g. the projector) and the presentation notes, clock, etc, on another (e.g. the main laptop display).

First, install ‘openoffice.org-presenter-console’, and once you have your displays configured, launch OpenOffice and select “Slide Show” / “Slide Show Settings …”. From here, you can configure the displays under “Multiple displays”.

So nice. :)

UPDATE: corrected my typo. thank you! :)

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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5/17/2010

yay for barriers

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 12:13 pm

I find it surreal to have people guessing at my motivations when they could just ask me. On top of all that, I find it weird that people spend so much time with in-fighting. I just want my system not to suck.

Some time ago (during in the Ubuntu Karmic development cycle maybe in September 2009), I started having giant problems with my build system. All I/O would start to stall, wait times would surge, and usually my entire system would just go unresponsive with the disk light on solid. This scared the crap out of me, and it wasn’t entirely obvious what was triggering it. No one else seemed to be seeing it. I managed to start tracking things using “latencytop”, and saw stuff like liferea going crazy. As I eliminated more and more things, I eventually settled on it being a problem with umount, and I reported an Ubuntu bug. It seemed to look like an upstream bug that no one else but the reporter could reproduce either.

Since no one else was seeing this issue, and it seemed related to LVM snapshots, I migrated off of snapshots, and started using aufs overlays for my builds. For a while, it seemed like things went away. It didn’t, and I started hitting it again. I opened a new (now famous) bug in Ubuntu, since now snapshots weren’t in the picture, and I didn’t want to confuse the earlier history. I managed to find a relatively minimal test-case too. A few other people commenting on the bug were seeing the problem now too, but it was less pronounced for them.

As an aside, this wasn’t a “just wait a few seconds longer” kind of issue on my system. A single umount would last 30-40 minutes. And when I’m doing parallel builds of security updates, this would turn into my system being unavailable for hours at a stretch.

Since none of the kernel developers I was in contact with were able to track down the root cause, I asked Ted Ts’o in email if he could just quickly peek in on this for me, since I figured he’d be in a good position to confirm or deny it. I didn’t want to start wasting upstream time with this if it wasn’t reproducible (see earlier upstream kernel bug). To my great relief, Ted found a few minutes to check it, and was able to immediately confirm it and give me a viable work-around (“sync; umount …”) for the time being. I confirmed the work-around, and went off to do other things.

A while later, Ted came back to deliver a bit of a rant, the purpose of which was not clear to me, but I ultimately ignored it — I didn’t seem directed at me. I just wanted my system operating normally, and he’d done me a favor to check in on it and got me a work-around.

More time passes, and I eventually get caught in another I/O-wait melt-down. On investigation, it seemed that the in-kernel work-around in the Ubuntu kernel totally back-fired on me in some cases, rendering even the user-space work-around useless. After investigating the Ubuntu-specific work-around, I re-read Ted’s rant in the course of researching what had happened during this bug’s triage.

It seemed that Ted was basically saying:
– this is an upstream problem
– RedHat hasn’t run into it and he didn’t know why

I figured I should confirm for myself if Fedora was affected, so downloaded and installed Fedora to double-check there. Since I was able to reproduce it there, I opened an upstream bug, linking back to the original Ubuntu bug, and then went to open a bug in the Fedora tracker, linking back to upstream.

And it seems to be these actions that everyone has jumped on. I will now bore you with the reality of my motivations: I wanted to fix the bug so no one would end up experiencing the same pain I’d been through over the last 6 months.

The bug was, from my perspective, a serious issue. Since I’d managed to reproduce it in another distro, it was my duty as a Free Software developer to report it to them. And, in what I felt was an unambiguous gesture, I made sure to include the link to the upstream kernel bug. Reproducing it in Ubuntu, in Fedora, and with a stock kernel had me confident that it was an upstream issue. While Ted did correctly suspect the issue was upstream, I really didn’t want to just open an upstream bug and have it be ignored. I wanted some additional proof of reproduction, which I got when I tested it on Fedora.

So, I’m rather saddened that so many people spent so much time questioning my motivations, making fun of Canonical, or doing anything other than trying to just simply solve this problem. I’m totally disinterested in inter-distro fighting. Instead, I continue to assume we’re all on the same team, fighting a philosophical battle against close-source software. And in that regard, I think it’s still true. If I ignore the rants and jeering, I come away thankful for all the people that spent time trying reproduce the issue at Canonical, at RedHat, and in the larger community. I’m hugely thankful that Ted made some time to let me know I wasn’t crazy, and there was actually a problem. I’m thankful for having some work-arounds, and I’m thankful that the root cause was eventually ferreted out, with some possible solutions. I’m even thankful that some people on the LWN thread saw that, far from malicious, I was trying to be helpful with the bug.

I just wanted my filesystem not to eat my computer. And I was hoping other people could maybe help me, since I’m not a filesystem expert. The drama around this bug is pathetic, and now by talking about it for almost 1000 words, I’m just as guilty.

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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4/7/2010

Debian maintainer scripts diagrams

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu — kees @ 2:27 pm

Since the Debian Women Wiki is on hiatus, I found myself without the handy Maintainer Scripts diagrams today. So, I recovered it from Google’s cache, and put it up on the main Debian wiki: MaintainerScripts.

I used a great tool to go from HTML back to MoinMoin syntax: html2wiki

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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3/10/2010

openssl client does not check commonName

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 10:47 pm

I realize the openssl s_client tool tries to be upper-layer protocol agnostic, but doesn’t everything that uses SSL do commonName checking (HTTP, SMTP, IMAP, FTP, POP, XMPP)? Shouldn’t this be something openssl s_client does by default, maybe with an option to turn it off for less common situations?

Here it doesn’t complain about connecting to “outflux.net” when the cert has a CN for “www.outflux.net”:

echo QUIT | openssl s_client -CApath /etc/ssl/certs \
  -connect outflux.net:443 2>/dev/null | egrep "subject=|Verify"
subject=/CN=www.outflux.net
    Verify return code: 0 (ok)

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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Clearing /tmp on boot

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 3:48 pm

I don’t like unconditionally clearing /tmp on boot, since I’m invariably working on something in there when my system locks up. But I do like /tmp getting cleaned up from time to time. As a compromise, I’ve set TMPTIME=7 in /etc/default/rcS so that only stuff older than 7 days is deleted when I reboot.

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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3/8/2010

Cylon Dorkshield

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Embedded,Ubuntu — kees @ 8:42 pm

I’ve finally soldered on the LEDs for the Cylon DorkShield I designed and got built in a recent DorkBotPDX PCB run. I’m having trouble with the programmer, but I got the shield mostly working:

Cylon DorkShield

© 2010 – 2015, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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2/28/2010

egosurfing with git

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 12:19 pm

I’m never sure when my commits to Linux actually make it into an official release. Luckily, since releases are tagged, I can use “git tag --contains COMMIT” to find them. So, in a stunning display of inefficiency, here’s what I use to find my commits:

git log --author='Kees Cook' --pretty=oneline | \
while read commit name; do \
    echo $(git tag --contains $commit | head -n1): "$name"; \
done

Which lets me know where my code is with respect to releases:

v2.6.33: x86, mm: Report state of NX protections during boot
v2.6.33: sysctl: require CAP_SYS_RAWIO to set mmap_min_addr
v2.6.32: proc: fix reported unit for RLIMIT_CPU
v2.6.31: modules: sysctl to block module loading
...

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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2/25/2010

fun with process scheduling

Filed under: Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 11:04 am

In an attempt to force an exec to totally stall so I could attach gdb to a process that does a setuid transition without freaking it out (i.e. can’t launch “sudo gdb …”), I briefly played with process priority, scheduling, and CPU affinity (pinning a process to a CPU).

So far, the best attempt at stalling the process was to set CPU affinity, set its scheduling policy (IDLE), drop the priority value fully (19), and then run a CPU hog with the same CPU affinity with a very high priority (-20).

Staller: sudo schedtool -a 0 -N -n -20 -e /tmp/spin-cpu
Stallee: schedtool -a 0 -D -n 19 -e /usr/bin/sudo -s

The hope was to then run “sudo gdb /usr/bin/sudo $(pidof sudo)“, but it seems that this still isn’t enough to make the exec of sudo totally stall while the “spin-cpu” process is running — it certainly executes more slowly, but I want it to stop.

I have this feeling like I’m missing something obvious about how to accomplish this gdb session sanely. I wonder if I can get gdb to switch targets across a child exec, i.e. run gdb as root on a program that fully drops privs, but then execs sudo. Guess it’s time to go read the gdb manual some more…

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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2/18/2010

data mining for NX bit

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 11:15 am

9% of Ubuntu systems that were used to report bugs that included their /proc/cpuinfo file need to fix their BIOS settings to gain the NX bit.

Check for yourself. (Run it with --verbose for useful details.)

Out of 7511 Ubuntu bugs Brian Murray collected for me that included /proc/cpuinfo files, there were 7270 unique contents (which surprised me — I was expecting this to be much lower).

  • 5 (0.07%) were non-x86.
  • 1 (0.02%) had corrupted contents (likely due to a search/replace in apport gone awry).
  • 5670 (77.99%) had NX (this also surprised me — I was not expecting it to be so high).
  • 337 (4.64%) lacked PAE, and so cannot have NX (I didn’t expect this to be so low; Ubuntu bug reporters must have relatively recent hardware overall).
  • 595 (8.18%) had PAE and correctly lacked NX (I didn’t expect this to be so high — PAE without NX is a bit more common than I’d hoped; hopefully these systems are running 32bit kernels to at least get the partial NX emulation).
  • 662 (9.1%) had PAE but incorrectly lacked NX.

It’s this last group of systems I’m hoping to get fixed through education.

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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2/9/2010

easy example of filesystem capabilities

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Networking,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 11:15 am

Instead of using setuid programs, the goal for the future is to use fine-grained capabilities. For example, here is /bin/ping:

$ ls -la /bin/ping
-rwsr-xr-x 1 root root 35680 2009-11-05 00:41 /bin/ping
$ ./ping 127.0.0.1
PING 127.0.0.1 (127.0.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.041 ms

$ sudo setcap CAP_NET_RAW=ep /bin/ping
$ getcap /bin/ping
/bin/ping = cap_net_raw+ep
$ ./ping 127.0.0.1
PING 127.0.0.1 (127.0.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.041 ms

$ dmesg | tail -n1
[212275.772124] warning: `/bin/ping’ has both setuid-root and effective capabilities. Therefore not raising all capabilities.

The best part is that the kernel will choose the set of least privileges when both setuid and capabilities exist. Easy way to transition!

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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2/8/2010

rng-tools with TPM

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 7:32 pm

In Ubuntu, I uploaded an rng-tools that supports the RNG in TPM devices (my patch is waiting in Debian). This hardware is available on a bunch of systems, including several Thinkpads and the Intel Q35, Q45 and newer main boards.

While most TPM RNGs aren’t really heavy-duty hardware RNGs, they are at least a mild source of randomness. I’ll be using an entropy key eventually, but for now, the TPM can supplement my collected entropy.

/etc/default/rng-tools:

HRNGDEVICE=/dev/null
RNGDOPTIONS=”–hrng=tpm –fill-watermark=90% –feed-interval=1″

After it’s been running a bit:

Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: bits received from HRNG source: 6180064
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: bits sent to kernel pool: 6166144
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: entropy added to kernel pool: 4624608
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2 successes: 309
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2 failures: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2(2001-10-10) Monobit: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2(2001-10-10) Poker: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2(2001-10-10) Runs: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2(2001-10-10) Long run: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS 140-2(2001-10-10) Continuous run: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: HRNG source speed: (min=5.207; avg=6.145; max=6.200)Kibits/s
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: FIPS tests speed: (min=66.925; avg=75.789; max=112.861)Mibits/s
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: Lowest ready-buffers level: 0
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: Entropy starvations: 308
Feb 8 19:10:51 linux rngd[13143]: stats: Time spent starving for entropy: (min=3150263; avg=3178447.994; max=3750848)us

And now the kernel entropy pool is high:

$ echo $(cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail)/$(cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/poolsize)
3968/4096

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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1/24/2010

Google is wardriving

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,General,Networking,Security,Ubuntu,Web — kees @ 8:28 pm

So, a while back, Google started providing location services. This seemed pretty cool, but I kind of ignored it until recently when I was playing with my Android’s location API. With the GPS off, and no cell towers visible (my basement gets terrible cell service), my phone knew within about 500 feet of where it actually was. All I was connected to was my wifi.

Bottom line: it seems that Google, among other methods, is likely wardriving while photographing for Street View. They are now able to pinpoint wifi access points if they happened to see it while driving through your city.

I’m really rather astonished that no one is freaking out about this; I’m a bit unnerved. I implemented the location-of-your-wifi API quickly, so I could terrify myself further. You can do lookups via my location website too, if you want.

UPDATE: yeah, it would seem to be crowd-sourced wifi and cell tower triangulation data. I should say “Google is WarCrowding”.

© 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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12/25/2009

happy holidays 2009!

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 9:19 pm

Happy Holidays!

Or, as my firewall reported this morning:

Dec 25 04:39:18 firewall kernel: [1054241.000084] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] ABORT operation started
...
Dec 25 04:40:10 firewall kernel: [1054292.072173] raid1: sdb2: redirecting sector 3490144 to another mirror

I guess I’m getting my firewall a new hard drive for Christmas. :)

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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12/16/2009

headache empathy

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Multimedia,Ubuntu — kees @ 9:20 pm

Run “gstreamer-properties“, click the “Video” tab, change Default Input Plugin to “Custom”, and add this Pipeline:

v4l2src ! ffmpegcolorspace ! vertigotv ! ffmpegcolorspace

Now when Empathy video-chatting with a friend, you can give them a headache!

Or give yourself a headache by trying it directly from the command line:

gst-launch v4l2src ! ffmpegcolorspace ! vertigotv ! ffmpegcolorspace ! xvimagesink

Feel free to replace “vertigotv” with any other or more of the video effects listed in “gst-inspect effectv“.

Here’s me with edgetv ! vertigotv:

Edge Vertigo

© 2009 – 2015, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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12/9/2009

install from official repositories only

Filed under: Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 10:02 am

As quickly pointed out by Rick, don’t install random software that isn’t in the official distribution archive unless you really know what you’re doing (and copy/pasting commands from a website doesn’t count). You’re just asking to be made part of a botnet.

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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11/24/2009

missing kernel features in ARM

Filed under: Debian,Security,Ubuntu — kees @ 10:38 pm

As more attention is given to the ARM ports of Linux, I’m hoping someone (maybe me if I learn a bunch) will be able to implement some upstream kernel features that are implemented only on x86 so far:

  • ASLR of mmap allocations
  • ASLR of text/exec area
  • ASLR of vdso
  • ASLR of brk area

Stack is already randomized, it should be easy to do the rest! ;)

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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10/24/2009

karmic and log rotation

Filed under: Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 10:00 am

In Ubuntu’s Karmic and and Debian’s Lenny, sysklogd was replaced with rsyslog. This is fine, since rsyslog will have converted your /etc/syslog.conf to /etc/rsyslog.d/50-default.conf. However, if you modified the (maddeningly strange sysklogd-specific) log file rotation in /etc/cron.daily/sysklogd or /etc/cron.weekly/sysklogd, you’ll want to review the new (sane) /etc/logrotate.d/rsyslog. (Note also that savelog uses .0 as the first rotated file extension, and logrotate uses .1.)

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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10/22/2009

TPM as RNG

Filed under: Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 10:43 pm

I was reminded about some TPM coding I’d done to get random bytes from the pRNG on my TPM-enabled system from Matt Domsch’s recent post. I’m not fully convinced that the pRNG of the TPM is an appropriate source of entropy, but it does pass my simple FIPS-140-2 test.

I had to find the Intel TPM docs to figure out how to enable TPM on my system. It was under “Advanced / Peripherals”. I was expecting it under “Security”, like every other BIOS I’d seen. After that:

$ sudo apt-get install trousers tpm-tools
...
$ sudo modprobe tpm_tis
$ dmesg | grep -i tpm
[676618.167313] tpm_tis 00:07: 1.2 TPM (device-id 0xFE, rev-id 70)
$ sudo service trousers start
...
$ tpm_version
TPM 1.2 Version Info:
Chip Version: 1.2.2.16
Spec Level: 2
Errata Revision: 1
TPM Vendor ID: WEC
TPM Version: 01010000
Manufacturer Info: 57454300
$ ./tpm-getrand | hexdump -C
00000000 61 07 23 ff 71 3e 25 e8 f0 d5 de a7 a3 07 21 dc |a.#.q>%.......!.|

I could run rngd with a named pipe, but it’d be nice to have a new driver that could run a command instead to get the next 20000 bits.

UPDATE: I’ve implemented this in rngd now.

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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9/12/2009

uninstall sun-java6

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 11:59 am

With the vrms meme raging on Planet Ubuntu, I noticed some people still have sun-java6 installed. I’ve been using openjdk-6 since Hardy, and everything I use works fine with it (e.g. Vuze, Catan, Eclipse, FreeMind, and even Facebook’s photo uploader thing). Given the Ubuntu Tech Board’s “remove sun-java6 from the archive” Agenda item, it’s possible sun-java6 (being redundant and orphaned) would go away in Ubuntu Karmic (sun-java5 is already gone because Sun will drop support for it in October, and sun-java6 is not far behind).

I’ve heard some noises about openjdk-6 not working for people, but I haven’t actually seen any direct technical evidence of something working in one and not the other. Seeing as Jaunty’s OpenJDK was certified by Sun, it would be very interesting to find failures, as this would indicate that Sun’s certifications are missing something.

Looking for examples of failures in Google, I couldn’t find anything with obvious test-cases that failed with openjdk-6. I suspect I’m just not trying hard enough, but I’m curious what other people have run into.

Test for yourself:

sudo apt-get purge sun-java6-jdk sun-java6-jre sun-java6-bin sun-java6-plugin
sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jdk icedtea6-plugin

(Don’t forget to restart your browser.)

© 2009 – 2016, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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7/31/2009

blocking module loading

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 11:47 am

New for Linux 2.6.31 (and Ubuntu 9.10) is the ability to throw a one-way toggle to block module loading via /proc/sys/kernel/modules_disabled:

# uname -a
Linux sec-karmic-amd64 2.6.31-4-generic #23-Ubuntu SMP Mon Jul 27 18:39:59 UTC 2009 x86_64 GNU/Linux
# lsmod | head -n3
Module Size Used by
binfmt_misc 10220 1
ppdev 8200 0
# cat /proc/sys/kernel/modules_disabled
0
# modprobe usb-storage
# lsmod | head -n3
Module Size Used by
usb_storage 65600 0
binfmt_misc 10220 1
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/modules_disabled
# rmmod usb-storage
ERROR: Removing 'usb_storage': Operation not permitted
# modprobe zlib_deflate
FATAL: Error inserting zlib_deflate (/lib/modules/2.6.31-4-generic/kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/zlib_deflate.ko): Operation not permitted
# echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/modules_disabled
bash: echo: write error: Invalid argument
# cat /proc/sys/kernel/modules_disabled
1

The intent is for this to allow paranoid server admins (or other people not expecting to hot-plug new hardware or kernel services) the ability to block module loading without compiling a monolithic kernel.

This kind of thing used to be available through the “lcap” utility modifying the global capability bounding set (which was removed in 2.6.25), but init could always be made to turn it back on.

Combined with the removal of /dev/kmem and the hardening of /dev/mem, this closes another kernel rootkit door. It’s not a cure-all, but it’s another layer.

Now we just have to figure out ways to stamp out unexpected ioport-triggered DMA access.

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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4/19/2009

recording from PulseAudio

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,General,Multimedia,Ubuntu — kees @ 11:42 am

Every PulseAudio “Sink” has a “Source” named “monitor”. This lets you attach to a given Sink and chain more stuff to it, for example, recording the audio that is playing through PulseAudio at any given moment. This is very handy for creating, for example, PubQuiz-style clips of songs, movies, etc.

Here is a script to find the monitor for the most recently added Sink, record from it, and shove it through “sox” to get a WAV instead of raw sound data (requires recent sox, Pulse, etc):

#!/bin/bash
WAV="$1"
if [ -z "$WAV" ]; then
    echo "Usage: $0 OUTPUT.WAV" >&2
    exit 1
fi
rm -f "$WAV"

# Get sink monitor:
MONITOR=$(pactl list | egrep -A2 '^(\*\*\* )?Source #' | \
    grep 'Name: .*\.monitor$' | awk '{print $NF}' | tail -n1)
echo "set-source-mute ${MONITOR} false" | pacmd >/dev/null

# Record it raw, and convert to a wav
echo "Recording to $WAV ..."
echo "Close this window to stop"
parec -d "$MONITOR" | sox -t raw -r 44k -sLb 16 -c 2 - "$WAV"

© 2009 – 2011, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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2/13/2009

World Of Goo compiled on Ubuntu

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Reverse Engineering,Ubuntu — kees @ 3:44 pm

I first played World of Goo on the Wii. I loved it. Great stuff, reminded me a little of Lemmings, but way way better. Today I found out it’s also available for Linux, and I immediately downloaded it. I was pleased to see a .deb available and thought I’d dig into the binary a little to see how it was put together.

I’m hugely excited to see that it looks like the game was built on Ubuntu Intrepid for both the .deb and .tar.gz packages:

$ strings -a WorldOfGoo.bin | grep -i gcc
...
GCC: (Ubuntu 4.3.2-1ubuntu12) 4.3.2

The bundled libraries appear to come from Gentoo:

$ strings -a libs/libogg.so.0 | grep -i gcc
...
GCC: (GNU) 4.2.3 (Gentoo 4.2.3 p1.0)

OpenSSL (and libpng?) from Gentoo seem to have been statically linked into the binary:

$ strings -a WorldOfGoo
...
GCC: (GNU) 4.2.3 (Gentoo 4.2.3 p1.0)
_x86_AES_encrypt
...

What I’m so very excited about is that third party software producers are using Ubuntu for their releases. This means they get all the security and code-quality improvements that are built into the Ubuntu compiler for free:

$ objdump -CR WorldOfGoo.bin | grep _chk
...
084043f0 R_386_JUMP_SLOT __memcpy_chk

Many thanks to Maks Verver for doing the porting. I’m really enjoying the demo. Also, I can see your devel path! :)

$ strings -a WorldOfGoo.bin | grep openssl
OPENSSLDIR: "/home/maks/Projects/wog/libs/openssl-0.9.8j-linux-i386/ssl"
...

All this said, it may be that they’re actually only compiling pieces (like the Open Dynamics Engine, which seems to contain the bulk of the *_chk calls) on Ubuntu (or using .a files from a distro-compiled library that enables hardening only in builds — RedHat, SuSE), but doing the .deb and .tar.gz project linking on Ubuntu (which is why the compiler name shows up in the resulting binary). The RPM shows the *_chk functions too — actually the disassembly is identical between deb and RPM, which would imply that only final linking was done on the native distros but compiled elsewhere. I’d love to hear more details if Maks stumbles on this blog. :)

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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1/24/2009

debugging hangs in MIMEDefang

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 3:21 pm

I spent a while this morning hunting down the root cause of a 100% CPU MIMEDefang process. (Turned out to be one specific email triggering one of my custom SpamAssassin rules that seems to get processed really inefficiently.) I wasn’t able to find any documentation on how to debug where in MIMEDefang an email was getting stuck, and even jacking up the debugging output of my mimedefang-filter script seemed to imply it was happening late in the filtering process. After digging through mimedefang.pl, I found a “status reporting” subsystem and tracked it back out into configuration in /etc/default/mimedefang:

# Uncomment next line to have busy slaves send status updates to the
# multiplexor. NOTE: Consumes one extra file descriptor per slave, plus
# a bit of CPU time.
# MX_STATUS_UPDATES=yes

Turning this on, and then using “md-mx-ctrl busyslaves” (I command I didn’t know existed until today either) I got to see exactly where it was stuck:

3 B 13380 (Running SpamAssassin j951iX1t025805)

Now I’m having fun running md-mx-ctl with histo, barstatus, and load. :)

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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1/13/2009

ETOOMANYCERTS

Filed under: Debian,Networking,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 10:46 pm

After upgrading an Ubuntu mail server from Hardy to Intrepid, two users could no longer connect via SSL to send email though sendmail. One was using msmtp and the other was using Outlook Express. The msmtp issue was tracked down as a supposed deficiency in msmtp. However, this left Outlook, which is neigh-impossible to debug. From the Debian msmtp bug linked from the Ubuntu bug, it seemed that the root cause was the server sending too much data during the initial connection. Packet captures of an Outlook connection seemed to back this up: Outlook negotiated STARTTLS fine, and then just never responded to the SSL handshake.

It seems that something (openssl? sendmail?) changed between Hardy and Intrepid so that instead of using the /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt file just for verification, its contents were now being sent during the SSL handshake. (I reduced the number of configured certs with “sudo dpkg-reconfigure ca-certificates“, and checked on the size of the handshake with “openssl s_client -connect server:port | wc -l“.) It spewed 143 certs sent at every connection. Unsurprisingly, it seems some clients were choking on it (I would like to note that Thunderbird behaved correctly).

In the end, I configured my sendmail’s CAfile (“confCACERT”) to aim at just a single CA (the CA used to sign the server’s SSL key), and that fixed both msmtp and Outlook. How fun.

© 2009 – 2010, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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1/1/2009

happy new year, RIP md5

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 10:59 am

Welcome to 2009! Really, seriously, everyone can stop using MD5 now. However, be sure not to overreact. The forged CA research is a great read, but there’s no need to break existing certs. For a calm reaction, please read this.

© 2009, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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11/21/2008

directing firefox url opening

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Ubuntu,Web — kees @ 5:53 pm

A while ago, I found a way to open multiple firefox instances so I could have multiple cookie/password repositories. One issue that plagued me was that when launching URLs from other applications (e.g. liferea, gnome-terminal, etc), the URL would open in the longest running firefox, so if I opened my Browsing instance first, then my Authenticated instance, URLs would open in the Browsing instance. That’s what I wanted.

However, if I had to restart my Browsing instance (like, say, when flash was crashing), URLs would start opening in the Authenticated instance, which I didn’t want. So, I changed the Gnome preferences to run this script when launching a browser:

#!/bin/sh
firefox -p Browsing -remote 'openURL('"$@"')'

Ta-da, URLs are always directed to the “Browsing” instance, regardless of when it was started.

© 2008, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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11/18/2008

md5 lookups for 4 chars and common words

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Security,Ubuntu,Web — kees @ 8:19 pm

Here’s a fun link. This site appears to have seeded their md5 hash list with all lower case character strings of 4 characters or fewer and many english words (probably from some large dictionaries), and they seem to be adding more as they go. This makes me want to put up an interface to the 7 character alpha-numeric-plus-many-special-chars rainbow table I’ve got. But searching the 500G table for a single hash takes… a while. I’d need to batch it up. Go-go-gadget web 2.0!

© 2008, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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11/11/2008

phrase from nearest book meme

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,General,Ubuntu — kees @ 12:42 pm

Meme from Jono:

  • Grab the nearest book.
  • Open it to page 56.
  • Find the fifth sentence.
  • Post the text of the sentence in your journal along with these instructions.
  • Don’t dig for your favorite book, the cool book, or the intellectual one: pick the CLOSEST.

My result:

“The term linear just means that each output bit of the mixing function is the XOR of several of the input bits.”Practical Cryptography, Niels Ferguson, Bruce Schneier.

© 2008, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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11/9/2008

“rooting” the HTC G1 Android

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Embedded,Security,Ubuntu,Vulnerabilities — kees @ 10:27 am

People noticed that running telnetd seemed to run as root. Later it was discovered that everything you typed was being run by the root user also. So, that ends the first mystery: when you typed “telnetd” both the Terminal user and root ran it. It would fail (without error messages) for the Terminal user, and run successfully for the root user. So now, the question is, what the f is a root shell doing mirroring user input?!

So, there is a much easier way to get root that doesn’t require network connectivity. While the /sdcard mount point is nosuid,noexec, it’ll still run scripts if you explicitly direct them to run. It seems that the weird background root shell doesn’t understand the alt-keys, so it can only run stuff that can be typed without using alt, shift, etc. So, put the following in /sdcard/pwn:


mount -o remount,rw -t yaffs2 /dev/block/mtdblock3 /system
cd /system/bin
cat sh > sh.root
chmod 4755 sh.root
mount -o remount,ro -t yaffs2 /dev/block/mtdblock3 /system

You can either do this by dropping the file in place over USB mass storage, or you can type it via the Terminal using “cat“. (Rebooting here might help get the root shell in a sane state.) Finally, just navigate there without slashes and run the script:


$ cd sdcard
$ sh pwn

You’ll see lots of errors (but these are only from the Terminal user). The script is, however, run by the root shell too. You can verify the results:


$ ls -l /system/bin/sh*
-rwxr-xr-x root          shell     86936 2008-09-13 00:13 sh
-rwsr-xr-x root          root      86936 2008-11-09 10:12 sh.root

Next up: cross-compiling a little helper to elevate to real UID 0, and require a password to keep malware from looking for setuid shells.

© 2008, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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11/3/2008

days since last incident…

Filed under: Blogging,Debian,Networking,Security,Ubuntu,Ubuntu-Server — kees @ 11:15 am

If I made one of those work-site signs that tracked “Days since last incident”, and made one for “Days since last in-the-wild remote-root worm” for Windows and Linux, what would they each say? 0 and 7304 respectively?

Update: while the post was tongue-in-cheek (everyone suffers when any large subset of computers is being attacked), I should lower the Linux days count to 2783 (for L10n on March 23, 2001, which is slightly newer than Ramen on January 17, 2001). Thanks for everyone’s comments. :)

© 2008, Kees Cook. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
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